Archive for molten steel

Why did John Gross lie about WTC molten steel?

Posted in Uncategorized with tags , , , , , , , , on December 14, 2011 by swick

“Going below, it was smoky and really hot…The debris past the columns was red-hot, molten, running.” — Richard Garlock, Structural Engineer, LERA

“The fires got very intense down there and actually melted beams, where it was molten steel that was being dug up.” Richard Riggs, General Manager, Aman Environmental Construction, demolition company contracted to clean up Ground Zero

“There are pieces of steel being pulled out from as far as six stories underground that are still cherry red…and the blaze is so far beyond a normal fire that it is nearly impossible to draw conclusions about it based on other fires.” Don Carson, a hazardous materials expert for the National Operating Engineers Union

“Large columns of steel were just stuck into massive amounts of molten steel and other metals….It looked like a massive, molten mess that had been fused together……With all that heavy, heavy stuff, there were wires, rebar, concrete. Most of it was just steel. A lot of what we were walking on was just molten steel.” –Mike Donoho, Fire Chief – Bryan, TX Fire Department, aided in cleanup effort

“A combination of an uncontrolled fire and the structural damage might have been able to bring the building down, but that would not explain steel members in the debris pile that appear to have been partly evaporated in extraordinarily high temperatures” Jonathan Barnett, PhD, Worcester Polytechnic Institute, about World Trade Center 7.

“When we were down at the B1 level, one of the firefighters said, ‘I think you’d be interested in this,’ and they pulled off a big block of concrete and there was like a little river of steel flowing.” –Leslie Robertson, Chief Structural Engineer for the World Trade Center, speaking at Stanford University, April 2002

“Evidence of some steel melting was suggested by the photographs.” —Ahmed Ghoniem, PhD, MIT, Ronald C. Crane Professor of Mechanical Engineering

“I saw melting of girders in World Trade Center.” –Abolhassan Astaneh-Asl, Structural Engineer

He noted the way steel from the WTC had bent at several connection points that had joined the floors to the vertical columns. He described the connections as being smoothly warped, saying, “If you remember the Salvador Dali paintings with the clocks that are kind of melted–it’s kind of like that.” He added, “That could only happen if you get steel yellow hot or white hot–perhaps around 2,000 degrees.”—“Scholars Work to Rebuild the World Trade Center Virtually”, By Jeffrey R. Young, The Chronicle, Dec 7, 2001

He came across “severely scorched [steel] members from 40 or so floors below the points of impact.”–David Kohn, “Culling Through Mangled Steel.” CBS News, March 12, 2002

“They showed us many fascinating slides… ranging from molten metal which was still red hot weeks after the event….” – Dr. Keith Eaton, The Structural Engineer, September 3, 2002

“…literally molten steel…” —Peter Tully, Tully Construction

For about two and a half months after the attacks, in addition to its regular duties, NYDS played a major role in debris removal — everything from molten steel beams to human remains.. -—D-Day: NY Sanitation Workers’ Challenge of a Lifetime, in Waste Age magazine, April 1, 2002

“Fires are still actively burning and the smoke is very intense. In some pockets now being uncovered, they are finding molten steel.” -—Alison Geyh, PhD, Johns Hopkins’ Bloomberg School of Public Health

“It’s this fused element of steel, molten steel, and concrete, and all of these things all fused by the heat……Architects, engineers, people who work with steel, welders, have just never seen the level of destruction and the level of deformation of this material in our lives…” – Bart Voorsanger, Structural Engineer, re: WTC “meteorite”

“The heat was so intense we encountered rivers of molten steel.” -— NYFD firefighter, recorded in documentary film, “The First 24 Hours”

Fires burned and molten steel flowed in the pile of ruins still settling beneath her feet. -— “K-9/11: Tracking the Rescuers’ Trauma“, Penn Arts&Sciences, Summer 2002

“Feeling the heat, seeing the molten steel, the layers upon layers of ash, like lave, it reminded me of Mt. St. Helen’s…..” – Ronald Burger, public health advisor at the National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

….Shards of steel lay upon shards of steel, shifting and unstable…uncovering red hot metal beams excavated from deep beneath layers of sub-floors http://www.neha.org/9-11%20report/index-The.html

“We descended deep below street level to areas where underground fires still burned and steel flowed in molten streams.” —William Langewiesche, American Ground: Unbuilding the World Trade Center

“There were fires still burning and molten steel still running 21 days after the attacks.” -—James M. Williams, President, Structural Engineers Association of Utah, in SEAU News, Volume VI, Issue 11, October 2001

“As we get closer and closer to the center it gets hotter and hotter… it’s unbelievable…it’s like an oven inside, bright, bright, orangish color, at least 1500 degrees…and it’s six weeks later!” —Unidentified NYFD fireman in OSHA documentary “Up From Zero”

Mark Loizeaux of Controlled Demolition Inc., told the American Free Press that in the basements of the World Trade Center were hotspots of “literally molten steel” more than a month after…found “at the bottoms of the elevator shafts of the main towers, down seven levels…” He said that molten steel was also found at World Trade Center 7. -– film “Loose Change”

“Sometimes the steel could explode when the buried ends were exposed to the air. You saw some of the thickest steel I’ve ever seen bent like a pretzel, and you just couldn’t imagine the force that that took. The grapplers were pulling stuff out, big sections of iron that were literally on fire on the other end. They would hit the air and burst into flames, which was pretty spooky to see.” – Larry Keating, union ironworker, in “Metal of Honor”documentary

“When steel is brought up it is molten and takes two or three days to cool down.” – Father Edward A. Malloy, “Visit to Ground Zero, New York City”

“In the first few weeks, sometimes when a worker would pull a steel beam from the wreckage, the end of the beam would be dripping molten steel.” — Greg Fuchek, first responder

“Many contractors ….said they actually saw molten metal trapped, beams had just totally been melted because of the heat…” – Herb Trimpe, The Chaplain’s Tale

“You’d get down below and you’d see molten steel, molten steel, running down the channel rails, like you’re in a foundry, like lava.”—Philip Ruvolo, Captain, FDNY, documentary “Collateral Damages”, 2003

O’Toole remembers in February seeing a crane lift a steel beam vertically from deep within the catacombs of Ground Zero. “It was dripping from the molten steel.” Recovery worker reflects on months spent at Ground Zero by Jennifer Lin, Philadelphia Inquirer, 05/29/2002

“I found it hard to believe that it bent because the size of it and how there’s no cracks in the iron. It’s bent without almost a single crack in it. It takes thousands of degrees to bend steel like this.”— Ironworker in the A&E documentary “Relics from the Rubble”

“Underground, it was still so hot that molten metal dripped down the sides of the wall from Building 6″ –Ken Holden, Commissioner, NYC Department of Design and Construction, in his testimony to the 9/11 Commission

Some beams pulled from the wreckage are still red hot more than 7 weeks after the attack, and it is suspected that temperatures beneath the debris pile are well in excess of 1,000°F. http://thermalimages.nfshost.com/index.php/World_Trade_Center_Hot_Spots

“Turner himself crawled through an opening and down crumpled stairwells to the subway, five levels below ground. He remembers seeing in the darkness a distant, pinkish glow–molten metal dripping from a beam–but found no signs of life.” —Marci McDonald on Lee Turner, paramedic with Missouri Task Force 1

The debris pile at Ground Zero was always tremendously hot. Thermal measurements taken by helicopter each day showed underground temperatures ranging from 400ºF to more than 2,800ºF. The surface was so hot that standing too long in one spot softened (and even melted) the soles of our safety shoes. Steel toes would often heat up and become intolerable. This heat was also a concern for the search-and-rescue dogs used at the site. Many were not outfitted with protective booties... —American Society of Safety Engineers, May, 2002

“One fireman told us that there was still molten steel at the heart of the towers’ remains. Firemen sprayed water to cool the debris down but the heat remained intense enough at the surface to melt their boots.” —Guy Lounsbury, a member of New York Air National Guard’s 109th Air Wing, who was at Ground Zero from September 22 to October 6

“The workers go through three pairs of rubber boots a day because they melt in the three-week-old fire of molten metal and jet fuel….The health hazards are everywhere: the fire, molten metal, the lack of breathable air and 3000+ decomposing bodies. And I’m working for these brave souls.” —Ben Johnson, First Responder, aided in cleanup effort

Ed Pfister’s Diary: “…deep below ground a portion of the pile was still on fire and boiled with molten material. Sometimes, open flame would erupt as a crane pulled debris out and air rushed in. ” – “At Ground Zero: NIH’ers Respond to Tragedy in NYC

“These candidly shaken macho guys recall scenes still haunting their nightmares two years after 9/11 – a 4-foot-high pile of bodies hurled from the towers, finding faces that were ripped from heads by the violence of the collapse, and heat so intense they encountered rivers of molten steel.” – Lou Lumenick, New York Post, “Unflinching Look Among the Ruins,” March 2004

“There were big clumps of molten metal.” —Glen Klein, NYPD, Emergency Services Unit, 9/11 first responder

“A three-foot stalagmite of steel, which looks for all the world like a drip candle, sits next to one of the immense steel columns that held up the north face of the tower.” — James Glanz, New York Times, “Below Rubble, a Tour of a Still-Burning Hell”, November 2001

“…in the early days, the streams of molten metal that leaked from the hot cores and flowed down broken walls inside the foundation hole.” —William Langewiesche, American Ground: Unbuilding the World Trade Center

“One of them commented on how much easier it was to eat a sandwich in front of steel that was strong and straight and new, not molten and mangled and laden with debris.” — Corey Kilgannon, New York Times, “Ironworkers’ Job of Clearing Ground Zero is Over, but the Trauma Lingers, November, 2002

“Thermal imagery measures the progression of underground heat on about a weekly basis. These images are produced in 8-bit grayscale, with brightness levels of 0-255, 0 being the hottest and expressed as pure white. This is known as emissive data, or heat being given off from the structure from underlying hot debris or molten steel. Smoldering is yet undetectable, because potential fires appear cold until they are exposed to air.” — Maddalena Romano, “Mapping Ground Zero,” GeoNews, Hunter College Dept. of Geography, October 2001

Another study was carried out by the US Geological Survey, the purpose of which was to aid the “identification of WTC dust components.” Besides also finding iron particles, the scientists involved in this study found that molybdenum had been melted. This finding was especially significant, because this metal does not melt until it reaches 2,623°C (4,753°F).

RJ Lee: The Deutsche Bank building, right next to the Twin Towers, was heavily contaminated by dust produced by the collapse. But Deutsche Bank’s insurance company refused to pay for the clean-up, claiming that this dust had not resulted from the destruction of the WTC. So Deutsche Bank hired the RJ Lee Group to do a study, which showed that the dust in the Deutsche Bank was WTC dust, which had a unique signature. Part of this signature was “Spherical iron . . . particles.” This meant, the RJ Lee Group said, that iron had “melted during the WTC Event, producing spherical metallic particles.” The study even showed that, whereas iron particles constitute only 0.04 percent of normal [demolished] building dust, they constituted almost 6 percent of WTC Dust – meaning almost 150 times as much as normal.

The RJ Lee study also found that temperatures had been reached “at which lead would have undergone vaporization”– meaning 1,749°C (3,180°F).

“The condition of the steel in the wreckage of the WTC towers (i.e., whether it was in a molten state or not) was irrelevant to the investigation of the collapse since it does not provide any conclusive information on the condition of the steel when the WTC towers were standing.” – The 9/11 Commission Report
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John Gross’s reply, October 2006:

“First of all, let’s go back to your basic premise that there was a pool of molten steel. I know of absolutely nobody, no eyewitness, who has said so.” — John Gross, lead structural engineer for the NIST investigation, at the University of Texas, Austin


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